Evolução da Zona Costeira Portuguesa: Forçamentos Antrópicos e Naturais

João Alveirinho Dias


Coastal zones are unique, irreplaceable ecosystems. They are the result of a long (millions of years) evolution. Since early times estuaries and coastal lagoons were intensively occupied by humans. However, sandy oceanic coast only started to be intensivelly occupied in the 19th and 20th centuries. Coastal management structures were not prepared for this sudden intensification in the utilization of coastal zones. Some decades were necessary to the management structures adquire conscience for the new reality and its consequences. In order to make the intensive utilization of coastal zones sustainable, a new concept was developed during the last decades of the 20th century: the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). However, this concept is not aplicable, namely because coastal systems are open systems. What is possible, desirable and indispensable is the Integrated Territory Management (from wich ICZM have to be an important part).


Integrated Coastal Zone Management, ICZM, Costal Occupation, Coastal Erosion

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