Neurotourism Insights: Eye Tracking and Galvanic Analysis of Tourism Destination Brand Logos and AI Visuals




Neurotourism, Eye tracking, Galvanic Skin Response


This pioneering study explores the intersection between Neurotourism, defined as the integration of neurosciences in tourism, and the perception of tourism Brand Personality (BP) through the advanced use of psychophysiology techniques, specifically Eye-Tracking (ET) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). It analyses how tourism destination brand logos/combination marks and images generated by artificial intelligence (AI) influence consumer attention and emotional response. Focusing on the five dimensions of BP proposed by Aaker (1997) - sincerity, excitement, sophistication, competence, and ruggedness - this study highlights significant differences in how men and women process and react to brand values associated with specific cities. Employing a rigorous methodological approach and the application of non-parametric statistical analyses, the findings reveal distinct patterns of visual attention and emotional responses across genders, emphasising the importance of considering BP in the marketing and design of tourism destination brand logos/combination marks. This work not only advances theoretical understanding of tourist consumer behaviour but also offers relevant practical implications for tourism marketing and destination management.

Author Biographies

  • Víctor Calderón-Fajardo, University of Malaga (Spain)

    Víctor Calderón-Fajardo is a full time researcher at the University of Málaga. He is attached to the Department of Economics and Business Administration at the University of Malaga (Spain).

  • Rafael Anaya-Sánchez, University of Malaga (Spain)

    Rafael Anaya-Sánchez (PhD) is an Associate Professor of Marketing at the University of Malaga. 

  • Francisco Rejón-Guardia, University of Malaga (Spain)

    Francisco Rejón-Guardia (PhD) is an Associate Professor of Marketing, at the Faculty of Economic and Business, University of Málaga, Spain, since 2020.
    He was an Associate Professor of Marketing at the Faculty of Business & Economics, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain, from 2015 to 2020.

  • Sebastian Molinillo, University of Malaga (Spain)

    Sebastian Molinillo (PhD) is a Full Professor of Marketing at the University of Malaga. 


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Tourism/Hospitality: Research Papers

How to Cite

Calderón-Fajardo, V., Anaya-Sánchez, R. ., Rejón-Guardia, F., & Molinillo, S. . (2024). Neurotourism Insights: Eye Tracking and Galvanic Analysis of Tourism Destination Brand Logos and AI Visuals. Tourism & Management Studies, 20(3), 53-78.

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