Community Based Tourism: A Global South Perspective




Community Based Tourism, Community Development, Rural Studies, Andes region, Cultural Anthropology


The analysis of the impact of Community Based Tourism (CBT) has revealed a significant divergence in assessments. This paper aims to analyse the factors contributing to the observed "Duality Dilemma" in CBT projects. The research seeks to leave behind a simplistic binary perspective that categorises CBT solely as either beneficial or problematic. The paper identifies three key variables contributing to this dual perspective: a) the Context Variable, which displays how the outcomes of CBT projects m can vary based on the specific circumstances in which they are implemented; b) the Methodological Variable, which underlines the importance of developing long-term and longitudinal fieldwork to avoid a biased analysis based on the short-term observations; c) the Paradigm Variable which takes into account that the researcher's theoretical framework inevitably shapes their focus, potentially emphasising certain outcomes over others. Finally, the paper draws on empirical evidence based on a 30-year longitudinal ethnographic study conducted on Amantaní island (Lake Titicaca, Peruvian Andes).

Author Biographies

  • Claudio Milano, University of Barcelona

    Ramón y Cajal Senior Research Fellow at the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Barcelona. Co-Chair of the Commission on the Anthropology of Tourism of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES) and member of the Editorial Review Board of the Annals of Tourism Research (Elsevier). His main area of specialisation is the political economy of tourism. His research delves into the dynamics of the processes of touristification, exploring how societies respond to and resist these changes through social movements and tourism policies.

  • Jordi Gascón, University of Barcelona

    PhD in Social Anthropology from the University of Barcelona. He specializes in rural studies. His fields of study are the impacts of tourism in the peasant world and agrarian policies in Latin America. Since 1990 he has done research in the Andean Area. Professor at the University of Barcelona, formerly from the University of Lleida and researcher at the Institute of Higher National Studies (IAEN) of Ecuador. He is a member of the research group Anthropology of Crisis and Contemporary Transformations CRITS-UB.


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Applied Cultural Studies: Research Papers

How to Cite

Milano, C., & Gascón, J. (2024). Community Based Tourism: A Global South Perspective. Tourism & Management Studies, 20(3), 27-37.

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