Analysis of the determinants on the predisposition to visit a wellness tourism destination. Typologies of potential tourists


  • Andrea Paola De la Hoz University of Granada
  • Francisco Muñoz Leiva University of Granada


Wellness tourism, motivation, intention, mere exposure effect.


In this article we analyze: a) the potential effect that variables such as familiarity, motivation and image have on the intention to visit a wellness tourism destination; b) the existence of different groups of tourists that may exist using a psychological criteria, in this case, motivations. For data gathering, a web questionnaire was sent to an existing entry list on a web platform. The analysis demonstrates the existence of groups of wellness tourists and shows the influence of the variables under study on the intention of visiting a wellness tourism destination. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the decision-making process and the factors that influence actual and potential tourists to conduct welfare activities and to choose certain destinations.


Alegre, J., & Cladera M. (2009). Analysing the effect of satisfaction and previous visits on tourist intentions to return. European Journal of Marketing, 43(5/6), 670-685. doi: 10.1108/03090560910946990.

Baloglu, S. (2000). A path analytic model of visitation intention involving information sources, socio-psychological motivations, and destination image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 8(3), 81-90. Doi: 10.1300/J073v08n03_05.

Baloglu, S., & Mangaloglu, M. (2001). Tourism destination images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as perceived by US-based tour operators and travel agents. Tourism Management, 22(1), 1-9.

Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868-897. doi: 10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4.

Beerli, A., & Martín, J.D. (2004). Como influyen las fuentes de información en la imagen percibida de los destinos turísticos, Revista española de investigación de marketing, 8(2), 2004, 7-34.

Bettman, J. R. (1979). Memory factors in consumer choice: A review. Journal of Marketing (Pre-1986), 43(2), 37-37.

Bigné, J. E., Sánchez, M. I., & Sánchez, J. (2001). Tourism image, evaluation variables and after purchase behaviour: Inter-relationship. Tourism Management, 22(6), 607-616. doi: 10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00035-8

Bojanic, D. C. (1991). The use of advertising in managing destination image. Tourism Management, 12(4), 352-355. doi: 10.1016/0261-5177(91)90047-W.

Bornstein, R. F., & D’Agostino, P. R. (1992). Stimulus recognition and the mere exposure effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), 545–552. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.63.4.545.

Byon, K. K., & Zhang, J. J. (2010). “Development of a scale measuring destination image”. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 28(4), 508-532. doi:10.1108/02634501011053595.

Calder, B.J., Phillips L.W., & Tybout A.M., (1981) Designing research for application, Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2), 197-207.

Cameron, F., Cornish, C., & Nelson, W. (2006). A new methodology for segmenting consumers for financial services. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 10(3), 260-271.

Chen, C., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115-1122. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.07.007.

Chen, J. S., Prebensen, N., & Huan, T. C. (2008). Determining the motivation of wellness travelers. Anatolia, 19(1), 103-115. doi: 10.1080/13032917.2008.9687056.

Chen, K. (1997). The effect of satisfaction and familiarity on intention: Multiple-destination context. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 10(1), 159-173.

Chica, J., & Frías, D. M. (2000). “Regresión Lineal”, en T. Luque (coord.), Técnicas de análisis de datos en investigación de mercados, (pp.247-280). Madrid: Ed. Pirámide.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408-424. doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5.

Dolnicar, S. (2002). A review of data-driven market segmentation in tourism, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 12(1), 1-22. doi:10.1300/J073v12n01_01.

Durkin, M. (2004). In Search of the Internet-Banking Customer: Exploring the Use of Decision Style. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 22(6/7), 484-503.

Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. R. B. (1993). The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4), 3-3.

Frochot, I., & Morrison, A. M. (2000). Benefit segmentation: A review of its applications to travel and tourism research, Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 9(4), 21-45.

Gallarza, M. G., & Saura, I. G. (2006). Value dimensions, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty: An investigation of university students’ travel behaviour. Tourism Management, 27(3), 437–452. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2004.12.002.

Garland, R. (2005). Segmenting Retail Banking Customers. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 10(2), 179-191.

Gartner, W. C. (1993). Image formation process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(2-3), 191-216. doi: 10.1300/J073v02n02_12

Hair, J. F., Gómez-Suárez, M., Cano, D., & Prentice, E. (1999). Análisis multivariante. Madrid: Prentice Hall Iberia.

Hammitt, W. E., Backlund, E. A., & Bixler, R. D. (2006). Place bonding for recreation places: Conceptual and empirical development. Leisure Studies, 25(1), 17-41. doi: 10.1080/02614360500098100.

Hanlan, J., & Kelly, S. (2005). Image formation, information sources and an iconic Australian tourist destination. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(2), 163-177.

Henn, M. R., Lopes, P., Goncalves, J. M., & Fraiz, J. A. (2008). Turismo termal: cambios conceptuales y mercadológicos de los balnearios en España. Revista Turismo Visao E Acao, 10, 415–434.

Hunt, J. D. (1975). Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 13(3), 1-7. doi: 10.1177/004728757501300301

Jang, S., & Feng, R. (2007). T.emporal destination revisit intention: The effects of novelty seeking and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 28(2), 580-590.

Jeong, C. (2009). Effects of exposure time to travel information sources on familiarity, destination image and intention to visit. Recuperado Agosto 28, 2012 de:

Jeong, C., Holland, S., Jun, S. H., & Gibson, H. (2012). Enhancing destination image through travel website Information. International Journal of Tourism Research, 27(8), 16–27.

Johnson, E. J., & Russo, E, J. (1984). Product familiarity and learning new information. Journal of Consumer Research (Pre-1986), 11(1), 542-542.

Karjalouto, H., Mattila, M., & Pento, T. (2002). Factors underlying attitude formation toward online banking in Finland, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 20 (6), 261- 272.

Kaynak, E., & Harcar, T. D. (2005). American Consumer’s Attitudes Towards Commercial Banks. A Comparison of Local and National Bank Customers by Use of Geodemographic Segmentation. The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23(1), 73-89.

Kent, R. J., & Allen, C. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in consumer memory for advertising: The role of brand familiarity. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 97-97.

Konu, H., & Laukkanen, T. (2009). Roles of motivation factors in predicting tourists’intentions to make wellbeing holidays—a Finnish case. ANZMAC 2009 - Sustainable Management and Marketing Proceedings. Recuperado Julio 20, 2012 de:

Lam, T., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2006). Predicting behavioral intention of choosing a travel destination. Tourism Management, 27(4), 589-599. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2005.02.003

Larrubia-Vargas, R., & Luque-Gil, A. M. (2002). Las estaciones termales en Andalucía: de la explotación tradicional a la configuración de un nuevo producto turístico integral. Cuadernos de Turismo, 10, 101–122.

Lee, E. J., Kwon, K. N., & Schumann, D. W. (2005). Segmenting the nonadopters category in the diffusion of Internet banking, The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 23 (4/5), 414-437.

Letho, X.Y., Brown, S., Chen, Y., & Morrison, A.M. (2006), ‘‘Yoga tourism as a niche within the wellness tourism market’’, Tourism Recreation Research, 31 (1) 25-35.

Loh, C. P. A. (2014). Health tourism on the rise? Evidence from the balance of payments statistics. European Journal of Health Economics, 15(7), 759–766.

Luque -Martínez, T. (2000).Técnicas de análisis de datos en investigación de mercados. Madrid: Ed. Pirámide.

Luque-Martínez, T., Garcia, S. del B., Ibañez Zapata, J. A., & Rodriguez Molina, M. A. (2004). “La modelización de la imagen de Granada desde la perspectiva de los líderes de opinión externos”. En XVI Encuentro de Profesores Universitarios de Marketing. Alicante, España.

Machauer, A., & Morgner, S. (2001). Segmentation of bank customers by expected benefits and attitudes. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 19 (1), 6-17.

Mansfeld, Y. (1992). From motivation to actual travel. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(3), 399-419. doi: 10.1016/0160-7383(92)90127-B.

Marks, L. J., & Olson, J. C. (1981). Toward a cognitive structure conceptualization of product familiarity. Advances in consumer research, 8(1), 145-150.

Martín, H. S., & Bosque, I. A. R. (2008). Exploring the cognitive-affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29, 263-277.

Martínez, J. A. (2014). A methodological proposal to evaluate a city image through associative maps. Cuadernos de Gestión, 14(1), 75-96.

Mechinda P., Serirat S., & Gulid N. (2009). An examination of tourists' attitudinal and behavioral loyalty: Comparison between domestic and international tourists. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 15(2), 129-148.

Milman, A., & Pizam, A. (1995). The role of awareness and familiarity with a destination: The central florida case. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3), 21-27. doi: 10.1177/004728759503300304.

Moreno Gil, S., Beerli Palacio, A., & Ledesma, J. de L. (2012). Entender la imagen de un destino turístico: Factores que la integran y la influencia de las motivaciones. Criterio Libre, (16), 115-142.

Morgan, D. (2010). The growth of medical tourism. Recuperado Marzo, 9, 2015, de

Mueller, H., & Kaufmann, E. L. (2001). Wellness tourism: Market analysis of a special health tourism segment and implications for the hotel industry. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(1), 5-17.

Nunnally, J.C. (1978).Psychometric Theory, 2ºed. New York.: McGraw- Hill.

O’Neil, D. (2001). Analysis of Internet users level of online privacy concerns. Social Science Computer Review, 19, 17-31.

Pearce, P. (1982). The Social Psychology of Tourist Behaviour. Oxford: Pergamon.

Pearcy, D. H., & Lester, J. (2012). Capitalizing on emerging tourism trends: An exploratory examination of Jamaica’s wellness tourism sector within an innovation systems framework. International Journal of Business, Marketing, and Decision Sciences, 5(2), 121–137.

Peterson, P.W. (2001). The Debate About online Learning: Key Issues for Writing Teachers, Computers and Composition, 40, 57-70.

Phau, I., Shanka, T., & Dhayan, N. (2010). Destination image and choice intention of university student travellers to Mauritius. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(5), 758–764.

Pons, J. (2007). Web 2.0 y Travel 2.0, in Resumen tecnologías sociales aplicadas al turismo. Recuperado Junio,13, 2013 de:

Puczkó, L., & Bachvarov, M. (2006). Spa, bath, thermae: What’s behind the labels? Tourism Recreation Research, 31(1), 83–91.

Rajshekhar G. J., & Dion, P. (1999). A Life Cycle Segmentation Approach to Marketing Financial Products and Services. The Service Industries Journal, 19(3), 74-96.

Ravichandran, S., & Suresh, S. (2010). Using Wellness Services to Position and Promote Brand India. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 11(2), 200–217. .

Reddy, S. G., York, V. K., & Brannon, L. A. (2010). Travel for treatment: Students’ perspective on medical tourism. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(5), 510–522.

Schwaiger, M., & Locarek-Junge, H. (1998). Realizing customer retention potentials by electronic banking, Electronic markets, 8(4), 23-26.

Smith, M., & Puczkó, L. (2009). Health and wellness tourism. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Soper, S. (2002). The evolution of segmentation methods in financial services: Where next?. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 7(1), 67-74.

Universidad de Granada (2011). Estudio de egresados de la Universidad de Granada. La inserción laboral en el Campus de Excelencia Internacional. Universidad de Granada. Recuperado Junio,16, 2012 de:

Uysal, M., & Hagan L. A. R. (1993). Motivation of Pleasure Travel and Tourism. In VNR's Encyclopedia of Hospitality and Tourism, (pp.798-810). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Vogt, C. A.,& Fesenmaier, D. R. (1998). Expanding the functional information search model. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(3), 551-578. doi: 10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00010-3

Voigt C., Brown G., & Howat G. (2011). Wellness tourists: In search of transformation. Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, 66(1/2), 16-30. doi: 10.1108/16605371111127206

Weaver, P. A., McCleary, K. W., Lapisto, L., & Damonte, L. T. (1994). The relationship of destination selection attributes to psychological, behavioral and demographic variables. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 2(2), 93-109. doi: 10.1300/J150v02n02_07.

Winsted, K. F. (1997). The service experience in two cultures: A behavioral perspective. Journal of Retailing, 73(3), 337–360.

Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: A structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45-56. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2003.08.016.

Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2), 1-27. doi: 10.1037/h0025848.






Tourism/Hospitality: Research Papers

How to Cite

De la Hoz, A. P., & Muñoz Leiva, F. (2024). Analysis of the determinants on the predisposition to visit a wellness tourism destination. Typologies of potential tourists. Tourism & Management Studies, 12(2), 84-95.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>